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Monthly Archives: January 2014

Maintenance of Jet Mud Mixer

jet mud mixers

In order to make the installation and operation of jet mud mixer to be more efficient, attentions should be paid to the following questions:

1. Select jet mud mixer that suitable to drilling fluid solid control system. Normally, to most solid control system, a mixing hopper is just enough, if the drilling fluid circulation rate is bigger than 4550L/min, consider using a capacity of 4550L/min mixing hopper.

2. Keep the distance of line pipes and mixing hopper as short and straight as possible. Selection of pump and motor should based on the system requirements of pressure head and flow rate. During all operation, Venturi tube can play a good role, especially when the system back pressure will reduce the drilling fluid mixing hopper working efficiency, venturi tube allows fluid to move to higher height than the hopper in the vertical direction, in many cases, mixing hopper is placed in horizontal direction, while the downstream pipeline is placed higher or equal to the height of the drilling fluid tank top.

The Function and Installation of Mud Agitators

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The Function of Mud Agitators

Mud agitator is keep the drilling fluid stable, and so the mud agitator fluid discharged speed should faster than settling velocity speed, so the impeller diameter and the rotate speed is consistent with the work volume.
The cycling time of mud agitator is refer to the fluid mixer by the mud agitator, according to the foreign related document introduced, the cycling time is 30~90 seconds.
In the solid control system, the place of mud shale shaker and some other solid control equipments need sand setting, so the cycling time choose the maximum, but for other drilling fluid storage and drilling pump water tank choose the minimum time to make sure the drilling fluid stable. Generally, setting agitator cycling time based on 60s.

The Installation of Mud Agitators

  1. During the installation it should be lift in horizontal direction and put steady on the purpose place, regulate the limit less than 0.39mm and then weld the four pairs plug on the tank, and screw the bolt.
  2. The Rigid coupling should install a spring pad to stable and reliable, or it will cause deflection of wave wheel and axle, gear wear and tear.
  3. During the operation, it should without any noise, cassette, over high temperature and other abnormal cases happen, otherwise it should be stopped for checking, get rig of trouble.
  4. The speed reducer oil level should keep in the middle of oil-watching window, and add enough oil during working. The 120# industrial gear oil. When it can not available on site, it can be replaced by other lubricating oil.

Operating Guidelines of Shale Shakers

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Shale shakers should run continuously while circulating. Cuttings cannot be removed if the shaker is not in motion

  1. Drilling fluid should cover most of the screen. If the drilling fluid covers only one fourth or one third of the screen, the screen is too coarse.
  2. A screen with a hole in it should be repaired or replaced at once. Holes in panel screens can be plugged. Install screens according to manufacturer’s recommended installation procedures. Cuttings are not removed from the drilling fluid flowing through the hole.
  3. Shaker screen replacements should be made as quickly as possible. This will decrease the amount of cuttings remaining in the drilling fluid because the shale shaker is not running.
  4. Locate and arrange tools and screens before starting to make the replacement. If possible, get help.
  5. If possible, change the screen during a connection. In critical situations, the driller may want to stop (or slow) the pumps and stop drilling while the screen is being replaced.
  6. For improved screen life with nonpretensioned screens, make certain the components of the screen tensioning system, including any rubber supports, nuts, bolts, springs, etc. are in place and in good shape.
  7. Check condition of vibration isolators members and screen support rubbers and replace if they show signs of deterioration or wear.
  8. Water should not be added in the possum belly (or back tank) or onto the shale shaker screen. Water should be added downstream.
  9. Except in cases of lost circulation, the shale shaker should not be bypassed, even for a short time.
  10. Wash screen(s) at the beginning of a trip so fluid will not dry on the screen(s).

The possum belly (or back tank), should not be dumped into the sand trap or mud tank system just before making a trip. If this is done, cuttings will move down the tank system and plug desilters as the next drill bit starts drilling.

USES OF MUD CLEANERS

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The principal use of mud cleaners has always been the removal of drilled solids larger than barite. Sufficient drilling fluid bypasses shale shakers so that even with 74-micron (API 200) screens on the shakers, many drilled solids are removed from a weighted drilling fluid. When linear motion shakers permitted API 200 screens to process all of the rig flow, mud cleaner usage declined rapidly. However, whenever a mud cleaner was used downstream, the screens were loaded with solids.

A secondary use of mud cleaners is the removal of drilled solids from unweighted drilling fluids with a very expensive liquid phase—such as the initial application with the potassium chloride drilling fluid. In this case, the underflow from desilters is screened to remove solids larger than the screen opening. Solids and liquids pass through the screen and remain in the system. This is beneficial for non-aqueous drilling fluids as well as saline water–base drilling fluids.

In unweighted drilling fluids, the desilter underflow could be directed to a holding tank. A centrifuge could separate the larger solids for discard and return the smaller solids and most of the liquid phase to the drilling-fluid system. This method is easy to apply if a centrifuge is already available on a drilling rig. More drilled solids would be rejected by the centrifuge than by the mud cleaner screen; however, renting a centrifuge for this purpose may be more expensive. Both techniques have been used extensively in the field.

ZCQ Vacuum degasser supplier

Vacuum Degasser is also called mud/Gas separator. Mud/gas separators (Degasser) is the first units of solids control equipment arranged to treat drilling mud. As such, they process all of the drilling mud from the flow line before the mud reaches the primary shale shakers. The units have no moving parts and rely on the density difference between the gas and the mud for removal. The process is simple, yet very effective for well drilling fluids processing system.

vacuum degasserThe ZCQ Series Vacuum Degasser can quickly remove all kinds of entrained gas from the fluids. It is an indispensable equipment in gas wells, prospect wells and deep wells. It is also used with various kinds of clean circulating systems for drilling. The gas-fluids separation structure of the HV Series degasser is well designed, ensures efficient separation and proper filtering. A water ring vacuum style degasser is used for degassing combustible gas and explosive gas. Do contact us for further sales enquiries.

Features & Benefits of BW Vacuum Degasser

1. Compressed structure and degassing efficiency of more than 95%.
2. Treatment on complete deck, grinding sand, hot dip galvanizing and inactivation.
3. Select Nanyang explosion-proof motor or domestic famous brand motor.
4. Electric control system adopts famous brand of China.

Product characteristics

1 The vacuum tank use up and down the two rotating impeller, make the liquid is fully rabble, gas is more easy to overflow.
2 Mud is spurting is throw to the wall of the tank and the foam separator, the degassing effect is good.
3 In the process of water ring vacuum degasser, it keeps isothermal state all the way, it adapts to the pumping of flammable gas and explosive, the safety is reliable.
4 The equipment can direct use, needn’t install centrifugal pump, big motor, associate lines, matching voltage cubicle and easy to install.
5 Using is convenience and easy to operate.
The majority manufacturer in China are focus on oil drilling mud system is DC professional drilling solid control manufacturer, it has a very important role for oilfield , mud mixing system and other industry. Any interest please contact us for inquiry

4 inch Drilling Fluid Desilter in Stock for Sale

desilterDesilter cones are manufactured in a variety of dimensions, ranging from 2 to 6 inches, and make separations of drilled solids in the 15-to-44-micron range. They will also separate barite particles in the 8-to-25-micron range. Desilters are installed downstream from the shale shaker, sand trap, vacuum degasser, and desander.

Desilter cones differ from desander cones only in dimensions and operate on exactly the same principles. Common desilter cone sizes are between 2 to 5 inches. A centrifugal pump should be dedicated to provide fluid to the desilter manifold only. Setting up a centrifugal pump to run multiple pieces of equipment is not a good idea, as doing so requires compromises in performance and opportunities for incorrect operation.

These units make the finest particle-size separations of any full-flow solids-control equipment-down to 12 microns of drilled solid. The desilter, therefore, is an important device for reducing average particle size and reducing drilled solids.

Desilter suction is also taken from the immediate upstream tank, usually the desander discharge tank. Desilter suction and discharge tanks are, again, equalized through a valve, or an opening located on the bottom of each tank.

desilterThe maximum (max) gpm will be the maximum flow rate expected, not the backflow, as there will be times when the unit will not be operating and the total rig flow rate will have to pass through the valve or opening. Suction should not be taken from the tank into which chemicals and other materials (barite and bentonite) are added because valuable treating materials may be lost.

A 4 inch desilter cone is able to remove solids at a flow rate of 44-66 gallons per min (gpm). The above picture is a desilter (10×4’’ cones, model CNQ100) newly manufactured by Dachuan Solids Control, so the total handling capacity can reach 440-660 gpm.

Piping and Equipment Arrangement

Drilling fluid should be processed through the solids-removal equipment in a sequential manner. The most common problem on drilling rigs is improper fluid routing, which causes some drilling fluid to bypass the sequential arrangement of solids-removal equipment. When a substantial equipment, many of the drilled solids cannot be removed. Factors that contribute to inadequate fluid routing include ill-advised manifolding of centrifugal pump for hydrocyclone or mud cleaner operations, leaking valves, improper setup and use of mud guns in the removal section, and routing of drilling fluid incorrectly through mud ditches.

solid control system_

Each piece of solids-control equipment should be fed with a dedicated, single-purpose pump, with no routing options. Hydrocyclones and mud cleaners have only one correct location in tank arrangements and therefore should have only one suction location. Routing errors should be corrected and equipment color-coded to eliminate alignment errors.

If worry about an inoperable pump suggests manifolding, it would be cost saving to allow easy access to the pumps and have a standby pump in storage. A common and oft-heard justification for manifolding the pumps is,” I want to manifold my pumps so that when my pumps goes down, I can use the desander pump to run the desilter.” What many drilling professionals do not realize is that improper manifolding and centrifugal-pump operation is what fails the pumps by inducing cavitation. Having a dedicated pump properly sized and set up with no opportunity for improper operation will give surprisingly long pump life as well as process the drilling fluid properly.

Suction and discharge lines on drilling rigs should be as short and straight as possible. Sizes should be such that the flow velocity within the pipe is between 5 and 10ft/sec. Lower velocities will cause settling problems, and higher velocities may induce cavitation on the suction side or cause erosion on the discharge side where the pipe changes direction.

How to Choose the Right Impeller

imp3Radial flow impellers, as used in the drilling industry, are typically fabricated from mild carbon steel (stainless steel is less often used and generally not required, but is available for certai situations) and have rectangular blades (typically three or four per impeller) mounted in a vertical position on some type of hub. In square and rectangular compartments, properly sized redial flow will produce some axial flow when the fluid impacts the compartment side walls.

As with all square or rectangular compartments, dead spaces or spots will occur. Complete elimination of dead spots is not practical; however, when properly sized, they are negligible. The impeller should be mounted about 3 to 6 inches (~7. 5 to 15 cm) from the tank bottom. If the impeller is positioned too far off bottom, the flow will not sweep the tank bottom properly and dead spots can occur. Dead spots not only reduce usable tank volume (thereby decreasing the effective circulating volume) of drilling fluid, but can also increase drilling-fluid costs by allowing barite or other commercial solids to settle. Additionally, the settled solids will increase the time and expense of cleaning tank compartments before rig demobilization or when displacing or converting a drilling fluid from one type to another. It cannot be emphasized enough that good agitation results from proper agitator sizing and impeller placement.

In deep tanks, or where two or more impellers are on the same shaft, the impeller shaft should be stabilized at the tank bottom. Stabilizers are typically short lengths of pipe with an internal diameter large enough to accept an agitator shaft without hindering rotation. The stabilizer pipe will usually have drainage holes cut in it and be welded perpendicular to a small portion of flat steel plate that is affixed to the tank bottom, or the stabilizer may be directly welded to the tank bottom. Stabilizers will limit excess side loads on the bearings, can extend gearbox output bearing and oil seal life, and help prevent the shaft from bending. This is especially useful in situations where rig components are stored in the tanks during rig moves.

With axial flow impellers, there is more flexibility in the choice of shaft length than with radial flow impellers. A well-designed installation will usually have the axial flow impeller mounted two thirds to three quarters of the impeller diameter from the tank bottom. Proper placement of the impeller will make best use of the tank geometry to deflect the fluid flow from the impeller, along the bottom and against the compartment walls. The impeller shaft should be stabilized in deep tanks.

Since axial flow impellers are positioned higher in the tank, higher liquid levels must be maintained to prevent vortex formation and entrapment of air in the mud. If the axial flow impeller is mounted too low, bottom scouring may occur, which could lead to excess erosion of the tank bottom. Another consequence of an improperly mounted impeller is ineffective agitation of the fluid at the surface, which can lead to poor homogenization of the fluid.

Shear Pump’s Common Failures and Solving Methods

shear-pump1. Exceeding shaft power
    Reason

1) The impeller fractionates the end face of pump casing, the sleeve or auxiliary impeller.
2) The pump works under the condition of than the designed head.
3) The packing is over-tightened.
4) The belt slips.

    Method of shooting

1) Adjust the clearances.
2) Inspect the complete machine and properly close the delivery valve for the pump to operate at the design point.
3) Readjust the locking force of gland.
4) Re-tighten them (check the two pulleys installation position).

2. Fall in head and capacity
    Reason

1) Big particle jams the suction pipe and flowing channel of impeller.
2) Fall in speed.
3) The impeller is worn.
4) Too much clearance between the impeller and end face of pump casing and the increased leakage.
5) The opening degree of inlet valve is little.

    Method of shooting

1) Clear away the jamming object.
2) Operate the pump at the rated speed.
3) Renew the impeller.
4) Adjust the impeller.
5) Increase it.

3. The bearing is overhead.
    Reason

1) The lubricant is too much or little.
2) There is impurity in the lubricant.
3) The bearing is worn.

    Method of shooting

1) Keep the surface oil at the limited lever of the dipstick.
2) Change of the lubricating grease.
3) Renew the bearing.

4. The pump produces vibration and unusual noise.
    Reason

1) The impeller is worn and non-equilibrium.
2) The bearing is worn.
3) The connection is loose.
4) The pump occurs cavitation.

    Method of shooting

1) Renew it.
2) Replace.
3) Tighten the loosened locations.
4) Improve the suction condition to prevent air from getting into the pump.

5. The leakage is excessive when stopping the pump.
    Reason

1) The seal is over-worn.
2) The shaft sleeve is extremely worn.
3) The packing is extremely worn.
4) The asbestos rings are slantingly rolled up.
5) The debris gets into the packing rings.
6) All the splits of packing rings are in the same direction.

    Method of shooting

1) Renew.
2) Replace the sleeve.
3) Renew.
4) Re-install.
5) Clear away the debris and clean the seals.
6) Re-fill them as request.

Solid control system used in Underbalanced drilling

Underbalanced drilling is(UBD) defined as “deliberately drilling into a formation in which the formation pressure, or pore pressure, is greater than the pressure exerted by the annular fluid or gas column.

solid control system1

UBD systems require surface handling equipment similar to that used on wells that are drill overbalanced, in addition to specialized equipment, the drilling fluid must remove the cuttings from the bottom of the hole and carry them to the surface. At the surface, there must be adequate back down the drill string. In case where the fluid is not reciculated, such as air drilling and some foam drilling, provisions must be made for handing the solids and liquids.

-Solids-Control-System_

Solids control in UBD does not get as much attention as does solids control in overbalanced drilling. There are a number of reasons for the lack of attention. Probably the major reason is the attitude that solids control is not necessary when well-bore pressure exceeds hydrostatic pressure. This is not even close to the truth.

Resservoir damage from high solids content can occur because the annulus is not underbalanced at natural-gas drilling when the gas is recycled to the gas plant. An elaborate separator/cleaning/recompressing system is required to recycle the gas. It is usually more economical to flare the gas than to recover and clean it.

 

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