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Monthly Archives: July 2014

Centrifugal Pump’s Impeller Designs and Casing Functions

centrifugal pumps

An oilfield solids control system needs many centrifugal pumps to sit on or in mud tanks. Hydraulic performance of a centrifugal pump determines its working efficiency. Two basic components of a centrifugal pump that are related to hydraulic performance are the impeller and casing.

There are three basic impeller designs:
. a closed impeller that has a shroud (rotating wall) on both the front and the back of the impeller,
. a semi-open impeller that has a shroud on one side and is closely fitted to the stationary wall of the casing on the other side, and
. an open impeller that may or may not have part of a shroud on one side and is closely fitted to the casing wall on the other side.

As fluid approaches the pump suction, it is assumed to have very little to no rotational velocity. When fluid enters rotating passages of the impeller, it begins to spin at the rotating velocity of the impeller. Fluid is forced outward from the center of the impeller, and its rotating velocity increases in direct proportion to the increasing impeller diameter. It should be noted that head produced by a centrifugal pump is a function of fluid velocity and is not dependent (normally) on the fluid being pumped. For example, a pump that will produce 100 feet of head on water (8.34 lb/gal) will also produce 100 feet of head on gasoline (6.33 lb/gal).

The function of the pump casing is to
1. direct fluid into the eye of the impeller through the suction inlet,
2. minimize fluid recirculation from impeller discharge to impeller suction, and
3. capture fluid discharge from the impeller in the case volute to most efficiently utilize work performed by the impeller and direct fluid away from the impeller.

The impeller performs useful work and increases the head of the fluid. The casing consumes part of the work imparted to the fluid and creates head losses due to friction, eddies, and other flow characteristics. A good casing design will minimize the losses, as opposed to a bad casing design. However, no casing design will increase pump head above what exists at the discharge of the impeller. Typically a centrifugal pump casing is designed so that the suction flange is one or two pipe sizes larger than the discharge flange. This is done to manage velocity of the fluid as it approaches the impeller inlet and also to minimize friction losses ahead of the pump. Excessive losses on the suction side of a pump can cause severe and rapid damage to the pump impeller and casing.

What is hydrocyclone and structure

Hydrocyclones use the centrifugal separation principle to remove or classify suspended solids in a slurry.

The hydrocyclone is a closed vessel designed to convert incoming liquid velocity into rotary motion. It does this by directing inflow tangentially near the top of a vertical cylinder. This spins the entire contents of the cylinder, creating centrifugal force in the liquid. Heavy components move outward toward the wall of the cylinder where they agglomerate and spiral down the wall to the outlet at the bottom of the vessel. Light components move toward the axis of the hydrocyclone where they move up toward the outlet at the top of the vessel.

Hydrocyclone

The Volute feed inlet prevents the slurry from circulating back into the path of the incoming slurry, causing undesirable turbulence that reduces separation efficiency.

The Fluted Vortex Finder shape increases the momentum as the incoming slurry swirls around the increasing cross-sectional area, causing a more rapid separation of the suspended solids. This also prevents larger particles from “short circuiting” and reporting out the Vortex Finder with the liquid phase and smaller particles.

hydrocyclone

The Non-plugging discharge Apex has a non-circular orifice configuration with a central core and lobes surrounding the central core. As the solids report out the Apex discharge, the surrounding lobes will cause any central core plugging to wash through by producing a differential pressure region.

The inner liner of polymer hydraulic cyclone uses abrasion-resistant and ageing-resistant material polyurethane(PU). This kind of material can reduce the abrasion of equipment and makes this type of device much more durable in use.

Mud Agitator Supplier from China

mud agitator
In drilling fluid treating equipments, how to choose a good mud agitator? A good mud agitator should have firm structure, reliable operation, reasonable and compact size, the width height ratio should be close to 1:1, so the mud agitator center is low, with good stability, impact load instantaneous encountered on the impeller, relatively safe.

In order to make the mud agitator in the mud tank uniformly, when the impeller blades in tilted 60 degrees, axial and radial flow are equal. When the liquid into contact with the blades, it was forced to move downward to the bottom of the tank, and then along the tank wall to return, the movement of the top and bottom mud mixed continuously, so that the various parts of mud in the tank have the same concentration. When the mud is pumped into the well, it’ll help to eliminate problems caused by the light, heavy mud unevenness during operation.

How Are Wells Typically Drilled?

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The conventional process of drilling oil and gas wells uses a rotary drill bit that is lubricated by drilling fluids or muds. As the drill bit grinds downward through the rock layers, it generates large amounts of ground-up rock known as drill cuttings. This section of the Drilling Waste Management Information System website discusses several alternative drilling practices that result in a lower volume of waste being generated.

Oil and gas wells are constructed with multiple layers of pipe known as casing. Traditional wells are not drilled from top to bottom at the same diameter but rather in a series of progressively smaller-diameter intervals. The top interval is drilled starting at the surface and has the largest diameter hole. Drill bits are available in many sizes to drill different diameter holes. The hole diameter can be 20″ or larger for the uppermost sections of the well, followed by different combinations of progressively smaller diameters. Some of the common hole diameters are: 17.5″, 14.75″, 12.25″, 8.5″, 7.875″, and 6.5″.

After a suitable depth has been reached, the hole is lined with casing that is slightly smaller than the diameter of the hole, and cement is pumped into the space between the wall of the drilled hole and the outside of the casing. This surface casing is cemented from the surface to a depth below the lowermost drinking water zone. Next, a smaller diameter hole is drilled to a lower depth, and another casing string is installed to that depth and cemented. This process may be repeated several more times. The final number of casing strings depends on the regulatory requirements in place at that location and reflects the total depth of the well and the strength and sensitivity of the formations through which the well passes.

Historically, wells were drilled to be relatively vertical and were completed at a depth to intersect a single formation. Thus, one full well was required for each completion. Modern technology allows modifications to several aspects of this procedure, thereby allowing more oil and gas production with less drilling and less waste generation. The following sections describe how drilling can be done to intersect multiple targets from the same main well bore, how wells can be drilled using smaller diameter piping in the wells, how drilling can be done using techniques that minimize the amount of drilling fluid, and drilling fluid systems that generate less waste. The U.S. Department of Energy describes these and other environmentally friendly oil field technologies in a 1999 report, “Environmental Benefits of Advanced Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Technology” (DOE 1999).

Impeller and Casing of Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps
Centrifugal pumps are the most preferred hydraulic pumps used in domestic and industrial world.

Impeller – The Heart of Centrifugal Pumps
Centrifugal pumps are used to induce flow or raise pressure of a liquid. Its working is simple. At heart of the system lies impeller. It has got series of curved vanes fitted inside shroud plates. Impeller is always immersed in water. When the impeller is made to rotate, it makes the fluid surrounding it also rotate. This imparts centrifugal force to the water particles, and water moves radially out. In Fig.1 its working is illustrated.

Since rotational mechanical energy is transferred to the fluid, at discharge side of impeller, both pressure and kinetic energy of water will rise. At suction side, water is getting displaced, so a negative pressure will be induced at the eye. Such low pressure helps in sucking fresh water stream into the system again. And this process continues.

From foregoing discussions it is clear that, the negative pressure at eye of impeller helps in maintaining flow in the system. If no water is present initially, the negative pressure developed by rotating air, at the eye will be negligibly small to suck fresh stream of water.So the pump should be primed or filled with water even before starting it. Impeller is fitted inside a casing. So the water moving out will be collected inside it, and will move in same direction of rotation of impeller, to the discharge nozzle.This is shown in Fig.3.

Use of Casing
From illustrations of pump so far one specialty of casing is clear, it has got increasing area along the flow direction. Such increasing area will help in accommodating newly added water stream, and will also help in reducing exit flow velocity. Reduction in flow velocity will result in increase in static pressure, which is required to overcome resistance of pumping system.

China JBQ Series mud agitator supplier

A Mud Agitator is used in surface mud systems to suspend solids and maintain homogeneous mixture throughout the system. DC agitator is available in both horizontal and verticalconfigurations – sizes range from 5 to 30 HP.   More than 7.5 kW Mud Agitator uses the turbo and worm gear speed reducer, with the large torque transmission, the revolution is steady, it works reliablely and has great merit. Common model of mud agitator is JBQ5.5kW, JBQ7.5kW, JBQ11kW and JBQ15kW.

agitator1

Mud agitator mainly consists of explosion-proof motor, reducer, motor base and impeller assembly. Solid couplings are used to join motor with reducer, and reducer with impeller shaft. Four vanes are installed and welded to form the impeller.

mud agitator

Why we must use Mud agitator in drilling fluid cleaning system, and what effect of it: 1.Ensure mud additives are homogeneously mixed, preventing spot over treatment of chemicals, dilution water or weighting agents. 2.Prevents the pits from” gelling” by keeping the active mud system moving when the mud pumps are disengaged.3.When drilling with weighted mud, properly sized agitators will keep the weighting agents in suspension, minimizing solids from settling in corners or dead spots of the pit.

Meanwhile, mud agitator has fewer moving parts and can be maintained easily with inexpensive cost.  Now, lots of excellent Mud agitator China manufacturer appeared. TangShan DC Machinery is a professional manufacturer of mud agitators, the following is the parameters of JBQ series mud agitator produced by DC Machinery. If you want to learn more about mud agitator and the whole solid control system( mud cleaning system) please contact us.

CNPC Finds Oil, Gas Shows in Disputed Waters in South China Sea

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China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) announced Tuesday that the petroleum drilling and exploration operation of Zhongjiannan Project in the South China Sea was smoothly completed on schedule July 15 with oil and gas shows found. In accordance with the work procedures of deepsea petroleum exploration and development, a comprehensive assessment of hydrocarbon horizons is to be implemented based on the geological and analytical data collected through the drilling and exploration operation. Next phase arrangements are subject to the aforesaid comprehensive assessment.

Since 2004, CNPC has been conducting geophysical prospecting activities mainly for seismic data acquisition in this sea area based on intensive and comprehensive geological study. As a result, the exploration targets were locked, and the well locations were identified. In 2013, well site survey was conducted.

CNPC started the drilling of two exploratory wells of Zhongjiannan Project May 2, and finished the drilling of No.1 exploratory well May 27. We started drilling No.2 well May 28, and the drilling of this well completed today.

The operation is undertaken by the drilling platform Hai Yang Shi You 981 (UDW semisub) run by China Oilfield Services Limited ( COSL).

Why shaker screen has screen blinding

Screen blinding occurs when grains of solids being screened lodge in a screen hole. This often occurs when drilling fine sands, such as in the gulf of mexico. The following sequence is often observed during screen blinding:

1. When a new screen is installed, the circulation drilling fluid falls through the screen in a short distance.

2. After a time, the fluid endpoint travels to the end of the shaker.

3. Once this occurs, the screens are changed to eliminate the rapid discharge of drilling mud off the end of the shaker.

4. After the screens have been washed, fine grains of sand that are lodged in the screen surface can be observed. The surface of the screen will resemble fine sandpaper because of the sand particles lodged in the openings.

 

Most eshaker screenvery screen used in the oil field is blinded to some extent by the time it needs replacing. For this reason, when the same screen size is reinstalled, the fluid falls through the screen closer to the feed.

One common solution to screen blinding is to change to a finer or coarser screen than the one being blinded. This tactic is successful if the sand that is being drilled has a narrow size distribution.

shaker screen1

Another solution is to change to a rectangular screen, although rectangular screens can also blind with multiple grains of sand. Unfortunately, the process of finding a screen size that will not blind is expensive.

In the late 1970s, the layered screen was introduced to avoid screen blinding. This hook strip screen was mounted on a downholl sloping, unbalanced elliptical motion shale shaker vibrating at 3600rpm. The two fine layers of screening cloth, supported at 4 inch  intervals, tended to dislodge fine grains of sand and would only blind about 25% in severe laboratory tests, leaving 75% of the screen unblinded. The non-blinding feature is assumed to be the result of the deceleration of the two screens. The wire diameter is in the range of 0.002 inch and the opening size are in the range of 0.004 inch.

Effect and Benefits of Heat Treatment in Solids Control Manufacturing

heat treatment
Effect
1. Heat treatment usually won’t change the shape and chemical composition of the heat treated materials.

2. Change the internal microstructure of the heat treated material or surface chemical composition, and further change the application performance of the material.

3. Can enhance the hardness, toughness, strength, wear resistance.of the material being heat treated.

Benefits
1. Improve the processing and using properties of the steel.
2. Extend service life of the product.
3. Saving product materials and energy loss.
4.Eliminate stress, casting is not easy being deformed under strong case, maintain its performance.
5. Effectively increase the wear resistance of the steel and change metal material properties to make it plays at a maximum.

Heat treatment operation methods are generally as follows: aging, quenching, tempering, carburizing, nitriding and so on. The shaker decks of shale shakers produced by Tangshan Dachuan Machinery Co., Ltd are all have strict heat treatment, which makes the screen deck becomes stronger in hardness, better in toughness, more abrasive wear resistant to drilling fluid particles, vibration strength generated by the motor reached 7.6G, the screen deck after heat treated will be more vibration resistant.

Functions and Components of Drilling Fluid

Drilling fluid is circulated fluid used in drilling process and a mixture of liquid, solid and chemical treatment agent. Dilling fluid is commonly known as “mud” and also known as the blood of drilling, it shows how extraordinary its importance is.
In order to economically and effectively remove harmful solid phase from the drilling fluid, it’s better to understand the composition and properties of drilling fluid solid phase and its influence to drilling.

The solid matters in drilling mainly refers to the slurry clay, weighting material, cuttings and some other solid material. The solid matters in the drilling fluid divided by source are slurry clay, cuttings, weighting material and solid phase in the processing agent, etc.
According to their mode of action in water and water ion, low density solid phase can be further divided into active and inert solid phase.

Active solid phases: refers to solid phase which is easy to hydrate or react with other liquid phase. This kind of solid phase has high surface activity and high specific surface area, the electrochemical nature is lively. This kind of solid phase has the role of adjusting drilling fluid performance, so it is also called the useful solids.

Inert solid phases: refers to solid phases which have no changes with surrounding environment, no surface electric charge, A mixture of sand, including flint, limestone, dolomite, shale and some many minerals. They gathered together, compressed activated solid, coalescence of the viscosity, caused by drilling fluid property change. This kind of solid phase is of no use in the drilling fluid, so it is also called the useless solid. Particle size of useless solid greater than 15 μ m, abrasive effect on circulation device, so it is also called the harmful solid.

Drilling cuttings is the main harmful solid phase in drilling fluid, during the drilling process, it will affect the physical properties of drilling fluid, increase the density, viscosity, dynamic shear force, water loss, mud cake, abrasive, viscosity and flow resistance. In the process of drilling, drilling cuttings will damage the oil and gas reservoir, reduce the drilling speed, increase rotary torque, result in sticking and blocking drill, cause well leakage, blowout and other complex downhole situations. At the same time, drilling cuttings in the drilling fluid will cause serious wear on the circulation system.

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