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Category Archives: Hydrocyclone

Complementary use of hydrocyclones and centrifuges

DC Machinery offers solutions for all of your Classification needs from hydrocyclones and centrifuges to classifiers and heavy media separation.

Hydrocyclones are related to centrifuges in that both are intended to separate heavies and lights by application of centrifugal force. The key difference is that hydrocyclones are passive separators capable of applying modest amounts of centrifugal force, whereas centrifuges are dynamic, spinning separators that are generally able to apply much more centrifugal force than hydrocyclones.

cones

Another key difference between hydrocyclones and centrifuges is cost. Centrifuges are expensive precision rotating machines that often need sophisticated control, whereas hydrocyclones have no moving parts and usually no controls at all, so they are lower cost devices.

hydrocyclones

Hydrocyclones and centrifuges are complementary rather than competing devices. If gravity alone will settle a significant portion of your solids in a minute or two using a quick bottle test, you should investigate hydrocyclone separation. If settling takes much longer than this, then you may need a centrifuge or other separation method.

Working details of hydrocyclone

Hydrocyclones should exhibit a spray discharge with a central air suction at apes. If cones do not operate in spray discharge.

1. Too many solids are being presented, and either more efficient upstream separation or additional hydrocyclones are required. As a first step, throughly chech shale shaker screen for possible tears.
2. Solids have plugged the mainfold or apex.
3. Solids pressure is below 75 feet of head.

Cones

if desilters are a significant distance above the liquid level in the mus tanks, a vacuum breaker should be installed on top of the discharge line. The vacuum breaker could be a simple 1-inch-diameter pipe about 12 inches or longer welded vertically onto the discharge manifold.

Hydrocyclones discard absorbed liquid with drilled solids. Solids dryness is a function of cone geometry-apex opening relative to diameter of vortex finder. Mud cleaner and/or centrifuges can process cone underflow for increased dryness. The discharge line should be above the fluid surface in the receiving tank to avoid creation of vacuum.

Introduction of hydrocyclone capacity

Since most hydrocyclones are designed to operate at a constant 75 feet of head at the input manifold, and flow rate through any cone is constant at constant inlet pressure, flow rate through any cone is predicatable.

Hydrocyclones are rated from 40 to 80 gpm of liquid removal. The normal 4-inch cones will remove 4gpm of solids, or 5.7 barrels per hour of solids, per cone. Therefore, the standard 16 cone arrangement will accommodate removal of 510 cubic feet of solids per hour. For 17.5 inch hole, this equates to penetration rates averaging 297 feet per hour. Clearly, if design and operational characteristics are adequately maintained, more than ample solids separation can be effected.

hydrocyclone

The accelerated gravitational forces generated in hydrocyclone are increasely proportion to the radius of the cyclone cylinder. Thus, the larger the diameter, the hydrocyclone, the coarser its cut point and greater its throughput. The smaller its cut point and greater its throughput.

mud cleaner

The smaller the cone, the smaller size particles the cone will separate. In other words, the median particle size removed decreases with cone diameter. Median particles size also increase with increasing fluid viscosity and density, but decreases as particles specific gravity increases. Oil-field hydrocyclones range between 4 and 12 inched, bases on the inner diameter of the intake cylinder. A small hydrocyclone diameter is used for ultra-fine-separation.

Features and Benefits of Hydrocyclones

The hydrocyclones produced by DC Machinery (professional manufacturer of  solids control equipment)have the following Features and Benefits.

1 Lightweight, durable, polymeric material construction. High temperature tolerance, chemical and erosion resistance and low-cost replacement.

2 Preferred flange connections: Tight, leak-proof operation.

3 Involute feed entry: Separates solids more efficiently than conventional tangential entry, thus conserving fluid and reducing wear at the feed inlet.Hydrocyclones-Desilter

4 Wear-resistant ceramic insert molded into the underflow (4-Inch desilter): Resists abrasion to a degree many times higher than the standard polymeric material, thus ensuring long-lasting life.

5 Skid-mounted installation with lifting eye welded to frame: Safe and easy handling.

6 Customized cone configuration specific to customer needs: Ensures proper configuration for application.

 

Application of desander and desilter

The cut point of 10 in or 12 in desander is 40 ~ 45 um and that of 4 in and 5 in desilters 20 ~ 25um. Since desanders and desilters would discard large amount of barite along with the drilled solids in a weighted mud, therefore they are usually used only with unweighted mud.2 in desilters can be optionally used for removing even finer particles (7 ~ 10um) of the underflow of the upstream desilters or mud cleaner.

Number of hydrocyclones: the number of desanders arranged in a set for a rig is determined in the way that the capacity processed by the defined number of hydrocyclones of a set of desanders must be equal to 125 % of the maximum rig circulating rate or more. A number of hydrocyclones in a set of desilters must process 150 % of the rig maximum circulating rate.

Factors influencing hydrocyclone performance:

(1) Mud density.

(2) Solid content of the underflow of the preceding equipment or solid content of the mud that gets into the inlet of this unit.

(3) Mud viscosity.

(4) Feed pressure.

(5) Feed flow rate.

(6) Apex size.

 

Working principle of Hydrocyclones

Hydrocyclones are a broad classification of settling devices that includes the desilter, desander, and clayjector. These are all basically the same device in different sizes which separate solids at different cut points.

The mud is pumped into the cyclone through a tangential opening at the large end of the cyclone. This results in a rotating motion of the fluid, much like a water spout. The resulting centrifugal force causes the particles to concentrate at the wall. The dense layer next to the wall travels downward and is ejected at the bottom of the cone. The remainder of the mud travels upward and exits through the overflow end.

At the overflow end, a short pipe called the vortex finder extends down into the hydrocyclone past the mud intake. It keeps mud from short-circuiting directly to the overflow. In effect, it taps the light portion of mud in the cyclone, allowing only the dense sludge to spiral down to the underflow.

If mud is fed to the cyclone at too high a pressure, some of the mud will exit the overflow without having time for the solids to segregate. If the feed pressure is too low, poor separation of solids occurs. This makes it imperative that the hydrocyclone be operated at the manufacturer’s recommended pressure. Four-inch desilters are generally designed to operate at 40-45 psi, and six-inch desanders at 35-40 psi.

 

Hydrocyclone trouble shooting

Hydrocyclone is designed for separating solids from liquids and are successfully used in a broad range of industrial and environment applications. It is also often used in petroleum drilling industry. This article lists some trouble shooting about hydrocyclone.

1 Under the situation of centrifugal cone no damage, the bottom flow hole of the cone block continuously.

The reason and measure: the inlet or outlet is blocked, bottom flow hole is too small. We can eliminate the block, clean pipeline, check up the shaker screen whether be damaged or appear flow around a body.

2 There is no drilling fluid flow in centrifugal cone (leakage).

The reason and measure: the inlet is blocked, so lead to the drilling fluid backflow.

3 The stock inlet pressure head is low.

Check up the running state of centrifugal pump: include the revolutions per minute, voltage, etc. Check up the pipeline block, such as solid sediment, valve close. Check up the shaker screen whether be damaged or flow around a body.

4 The centrifugal cones discharge dry particles.

The reason and measure: the bottom opening is too small, we should increase more cones.

5 The solid content in drilling fluid is increase.

The reason and measure: the processing capacity of centrifugal cone is not enough, we can install more cones. The solid particles may be too small, the mesh number of shaker screen may be too low.

6 The loss of drilling fluid is too much.

The reason and measure: The bottom flow hole of centrifugal cone is too big, decrease the diameter of discharge outlet or use the centrifugal cone with smaller nominal diameter.

7 The cone discharge unsteadily, the feed pressure head is changed.

The gas interfuse feed pipeline, check up the degasser is normal or not.

8 The bottom flow of hydrocyclone aerate.

Set passage to make the overflow enter into the drilling fluid pool.

 

Basic description of Hydrocyclone

The hydrocyclone is a vessel container with cylinder part, the cylinder part of upper cone is mud inlet room; the outboard install a tangential stock inlet; the underpart of cone is open mouth, the size of caliber is adjustable, use for discharging the solid particles.

In general, the shell of hydrocyclone is made of cast iron. For improving the wear-resisting property, the inside uses the wear-resisting rubber. For improving the service life further, shells of some hydrocyclones use the polyurethane, both wear and corrosion resistance. About the large-sized hydrocyclone, the shell use the material of alufer, interior use the polyurethane, this not only ensure shell have enough strength, and reduced the weight.

In general, the hydrocyclone is installed vertically, however also can be installed aslant or horizontally.

Most hydrocyclone, if without regard to inner diameter of stock inlet, the working performance will be best at the 23m pressure head. In market, some new cones structure may be need different pressure head, user must verify whether the centrifugal pump can provide suitable pressure to hydrocyclone manifold. When installing sand pump, should ensured less bend and T pipeline, the suction line should be the shortest length, guarantee friction loss is minimal.

Hydrocyclone is designed for separating solids from liquids and are successfully used in a broad range of industrial and environment applications. It is also often used in petroleum drilling industry.

 

Hydrocyclone for desander and desilter

Hydrocyclone is often used to separate drilling cuttings from drilling mud, and often installed on desander and desilter in solids control system.

Hydrocyclone structure

The hydrocyclone is a vessel container with cylinder part, the cylinder part of upper cone is mud inlet room; the outboard install a tangential stock inlet; the underpart of cone is open mouth, the size of caliber is adjustable, use for discharging the solid particles. There is a down inserted overflow pipe on the top centre of close vertical cylinder, and extend to below the stock inlet tangent location. The structure is constituted by cylinder, subuliform tank, mud inlet pipe, overflow pipe, sand settling tube, etc.

 

Hydrocyclone material

In general, the shell of hydrocyclone is made of cast iron. For improving the wear-resisting property, the inside uses the wear-resisting rubber. For improving the service life further, shells of some hydrocyclones use the polyurethane, both wear and corrosion resistance. About the large-sized hydrocyclone, the shell use the material of alufer, interior use the polyurethane, this not only ensure shell have enough strength, and reduced the weight.

Hydrocyclone installation

The installation of hydrocyclone should be easy to eliminating underflow, and easy to maintain and monitor. Every hydrocyclone group should be equipped with individual mud tank and centrifugal pump. A pressure gage should be installed on the inlet of header pipe to show and measure feed pressure which offered by sand pump. Except cone bottom and header pipe blocking, choose sand pump model wrongly and misoperation will also cause hydrocyclone breakdown.

 

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