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Functions and Components of Drilling Fluid

Drilling fluid is circulated fluid used in drilling process and a mixture of liquid, solid and chemical treatment agent. Dilling fluid is commonly known as “mud” and also known as the blood of drilling, it shows how extraordinary its importance is.
In order to economically and effectively remove harmful solid phase from the drilling fluid, it’s better to understand the composition and properties of drilling fluid solid phase and its influence to drilling.

The solid matters in drilling mainly refers to the slurry clay, weighting material, cuttings and some other solid material. The solid matters in the drilling fluid divided by source are slurry clay, cuttings, weighting material and solid phase in the processing agent, etc.
According to their mode of action in water and water ion, low density solid phase can be further divided into active and inert solid phase.

Active solid phases: refers to solid phase which is easy to hydrate or react with other liquid phase. This kind of solid phase has high surface activity and high specific surface area, the electrochemical nature is lively. This kind of solid phase has the role of adjusting drilling fluid performance, so it is also called the useful solids.

Inert solid phases: refers to solid phases which have no changes with surrounding environment, no surface electric charge, A mixture of sand, including flint, limestone, dolomite, shale and some many minerals. They gathered together, compressed activated solid, coalescence of the viscosity, caused by drilling fluid property change. This kind of solid phase is of no use in the drilling fluid, so it is also called the useless solid. Particle size of useless solid greater than 15 μ m, abrasive effect on circulation device, so it is also called the harmful solid.

Drilling cuttings is the main harmful solid phase in drilling fluid, during the drilling process, it will affect the physical properties of drilling fluid, increase the density, viscosity, dynamic shear force, water loss, mud cake, abrasive, viscosity and flow resistance. In the process of drilling, drilling cuttings will damage the oil and gas reservoir, reduce the drilling speed, increase rotary torque, result in sticking and blocking drill, cause well leakage, blowout and other complex downhole situations. At the same time, drilling cuttings in the drilling fluid will cause serious wear on the circulation system.

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