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Pilot Hole Directional Drilling

Pilot hole directional control is achieved by using a non-rotating drill string with an asymmetrical leading edge. The asymmetry of the leading edge creates a steering bias while the non-rotating aspect of the drill string allows the steering bias to be held in a specific position while drilling. If a change in direction is required, the drill string is rolled so that the direction of bias is the same as the desired change in direction. The direction of bias is referred to as the tool face. Straight progress may be achieved by drilling with a series of offsetting tool face positions. The drill string may also be continually rotated where directional control is not required. Leading edge asymmetry can be accomplished by several methods. Typically, the leading edge will have an angular offset created by a bent sub or bent motor housing. This is illustrated schematically in following Figure.

Bottom Hole Assembly
It is common in soft soils to achieve drilling progress by hydraulic cutting with a jet nozzle. In this case, the direction of flow from the nozzle can be offset from the central axis of the drill string thereby creating a steering bias. This may be accomplished by blocking selected nozzles on a standard roller cone bit or by custom fabricating a jet deflection bit. If hard spots are encountered, the drill string may be rotated to drill without directional control until the hard spot has been penetrated.

 

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