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Tag Archives: shale shaker

Why use solid control system in oil&gas drilling

Drilling mud is a obbligato part in petroleum drilling. It has highly polluting properties. As followings;\

Drilling muds contain a wide range of substances including base fluids (eg mineral oils/calcium chloride), weighting agents (eg barite), viscosifers (eg bentonite), surfactants (eg imidazolines) and biocides (eg glutaraldehyde).

 

Mud can aDrilling mudlso contain contaminants from formations (eg oil, condensate and H2S).

Hot mud will generate mists and vapours.

Health effects include dermatitis, respiratory irritation, narcosis and cancer.

H2S is a very toxic gas, it can irritate the eyes, and throat and can cause unconsciousness and death.

Good practice benchmark values for total oil vapour is 50 mg/m3 and oil mist is 1 mg/m3.

Individual substances should comply with their workplace exposure.

solid control system

Following the development of social economy, Each country is very strict to the environment but can’t restrict the development of economy. So appear solid control system to separate it. Solid control is a professional application to treat and recover the drilling mud.

Solid control system mainly consist of 5 levels( shale shaker, desander, desilter and decanter centrifuge). It not only can remove the harmful solid phase, but also can recycle the useful mud. That meas, protection the environment and reduce the drilling cost. Solid control system also become the obbligato part in petroleum drilling.

Effect and Benefits of Heat Treatment in Solids Control Manufacturing

heat treatment
Effect
1. Heat treatment usually won’t change the shape and chemical composition of the heat treated materials.

2. Change the internal microstructure of the heat treated material or surface chemical composition, and further change the application performance of the material.

3. Can enhance the hardness, toughness, strength, wear resistance.of the material being heat treated.

Benefits
1. Improve the processing and using properties of the steel.
2. Extend service life of the product.
3. Saving product materials and energy loss.
4.Eliminate stress, casting is not easy being deformed under strong case, maintain its performance.
5. Effectively increase the wear resistance of the steel and change metal material properties to make it plays at a maximum.

Heat treatment operation methods are generally as follows: aging, quenching, tempering, carburizing, nitriding and so on. The shaker decks of shale shakers produced by Tangshan Dachuan Machinery Co., Ltd are all have strict heat treatment, which makes the screen deck becomes stronger in hardness, better in toughness, more abrasive wear resistant to drilling fluid particles, vibration strength generated by the motor reached 7.6G, the screen deck after heat treated will be more vibration resistant.

HOW A SHALE SHAKER SCREENS FLUID

shale shaker
The primary purpose of a shale shaker is to remove as many drilled solids as possible without removing excessive amounts of drilling fluid. These dual objectives require that cuttings (or drilled solids) convey off the screen while simultaneously most of the drilling fluid is separated and removed from the cuttings. Frequently, the only stated objective of a shale shaker is to remove the maximum quantity of drilled solids.

Stopping a shale shaker is the simplest way to remove the largest quantity of drilled solids. Of course, this will also remove most of the drilling fluid. When disregarding the need to conserve as much drilling fluid as possible, the ultimate objective of reducing drilling costs is defeated. The size of drilled cuttings greatly influences the quantity of drilling fluid that tends to cling to the solids. As an extreme example, consider a golf-ball–size drilled solid coated with drilling fluid. Even with a viscous fluid, the volume of fluid would be very small compared with the volume of the solid. As the solids become smaller, the fluid film volume increases as the solids surface area increases. For silt-size or ultra-fine solids, the volume of liquid coating the solids may even be larger than the solids volume. More drilling fluid is returned to the system when very coarse screens are used than when screens as fine as API 200 are used.
Drilling fluid is a rheologically complex system. At the bottom of the hole, faster drilling is possible if the fluid has a low viscosity. In the annulus, drilled solids are transported better if the fluid has a high viscosity. When the flow stops, a gel structure builds slowly to prevent cuttings or weighting agents from settling. Drilling fluid is usually constructed to perform these functions. This means that the fluid viscosity depends on the history and the shear within the fluid. Typically, the low-shear-rate viscosities of drilling fluids range from 300–400 centipoise (cP) to 1000–1500 cP. As the shear rate (or, usually, the velocity) increases, drilling fluid viscosity decreases. Even with a low-shear-rate viscosity of 1500 cP, the plastic viscosity (or high-shear-rate viscosity) could be as low as 10 cP.

The Importance of Proper Operation of a Shale Shaker

Shale Shaker

The purpose of a shale shaker is to remove large drilled solids from the drilling fluid. The shale shaker is the first piece of solids-control equipment to treat or condition the drilling fluid. Good shaker performance is necessary if the entire system is to function at or near design efficiency or capability.

Shakers now come in a dazzling assortment of sizes, shapes, and motions. Their performance is controlled by the size(s) and shape(s) of the openings in the screen(s), the drilling-fluid properties, the amount and type of cuttings arriving at the shaker, and the general mechanical condition of the equipment. The shaker selected for your rig may or may not be the best for the drilling at hand.Unfortunately, if it is not, it must still be kept operational, and with intelligent, conscientious work perhaps can be made to do the job. All commercial shale shakers, however, remove cuttings—and they remove cuttings better when properly maintained and operated.

Drilling fluid shale shaker

Obviously cuttings cannot be removed until the drilling fluid first brings them to the surface. Solids coming off the end of shaker screens should have sharp edges. Cuttings that ‘‘roll around’’ in the borehole on the way to the surface have rounded edges. Rounded edges, or round cuttings, indicate that the cuttings are not being transported directly to the surface as fast, or directly, as they should be. The driller and/or mud engineer should be advised as to the shape of the cuttings coming over the shaker in regard to round edges. Rounded-edge cuttings indicate that there are many drilled cuttings stored in the annulus. This increases the mud weight in the annulus and the pressure at the bottom of the hole. The excess pressure significantly decreases the drilling rate and cuttings removal from beneath the drill bit.

Brandt COBRA™ Shale Shaker VS Dachuan DCS700-3 Shaker

Brandt COBRA™ SHALE SHAKER

Specifications

COBRA™ SHALE SHAKER

Dachuan DCS700-3 Shaker

Dimensions

 (L x W x H)

94⅝ in x 66⅛ in x 61 in

107 in x 63 in x 65 in

2403.6 mmx1679.7 mmx1549.4 mm

2730 mmx1600 mmx1640 mm

Screen Quantity

3

3

Deck Angle

0°, +5°, +5°

Adjustable -1° to +5°

Motor Type

Vibra-Motors

Long Vibra-Motors

Motor Power (1 each)

1.75hp (1.3kw)@ 380V/50Hz

2.04hp (1.5kw)@ 380V/50Hz

Screen Type

Pretension, repairable

Pretension, repairable

Screen Dimensions

 (L x W x H)

49.25 in x 25 in x 1 in

41.34 in x 27.56 in x 1 in

(1251 mm x 635 mm x 25.4 mm)

(1050 mm x 700 mm x 25.4 mm)

Screen Area

25.4 ft² (2.4m²)

23.7 ft² (2.2m²)

G-Force

5.4 Nominal G’s

7.0 Nominal G

Vibration Motion

Linear

Linear

Features and Benefits of Dachuan Linear Motion Shale ShakerDachuan DCS700-3 Shaker

FEATURES

BENEFITS

Unique, rugged basket design

Provides optimal mud coverage of screen surface

Few replacement parts

Small parts inventory provides costs savings

Linear Motion

Solids are separated and discharged with minimum attrition

Adjustable deck angles -1° to +5°

Keeps the mud pool volume small, which helps to increase screen life

Utilizes three (3) repairable, pretension screens

25.4 ft² (2.2 m²) of screen area which is repairable, thus offering cost savings

Individual seals on every screen

Screen seals eliminate screen leakage

Pin-and-hole screen securing system

Screens fit snugly and will not slip or slide once secured

Causes and Treatment Methods of Shale Shaker Drilling Fluid Leakage

Shale Shaker

How to deal with drilling fluid leakage during the operation of shale shaker?  This phenomenon is mainly caused by three kinds of reasons.

  1. High content of solids phase particles, high fluid viscosity, dispersion of cuttings and other incidents relating screened materials;
  2. Small vibration force, high screen mesh, small screen area and other self-related conditions of shale shakers;
  3. Direction and position of liquid inlet when installing shale shakers in the field.

These points are analysed below.

First, the screen mesh selected is unreasonable. The handling capacity of each shale shaker is 50L/s. Since drilling in the surface layer is faster, more solids phase particles are produced and occupies effective screen area, the fine-mesh screens can’t be used in shallow well. In the beginning of drilling, large mesh screens should be used and with the increase of drilling depth, adopt more fine mesh screens gradually.

Second, the situation of layer and drilling fluid influence the handling capacity. As the chemicals added in the drilling fluid are not fully dissolved and paste on the screen, a serious fluid leakage will occur.Another situation is, when drilling into soft sandstone layer or sand layer, the sand grains are easy to stuck in the screen holes and leads to screen blocking.

Third, check if the rotation direction of the motor is correct. First, remove the vibrator shield, check if the rotation direction of eccentric blocks of the two motors are all revolving outward. Second, if the rotation direction is incorrect, please exchange any two phase lines of the input power supply in the electric cabinet.

Fault performance one, although the shale shaker can remove cuttings to the sides, when the two motors revolve inward, the separating speed is very slow; Fault performance two, if the two motors have the same rotation, the vibration force is very small and no sand and drilling fluid will be handled at this time.

Fourth, inspect the amplitude of shale shaker. The larger the amplitude is the larger the handling capacity. Adjust the vibration force to 90 before manufacture completed. If fluid leakage occurred, align the angles of inner and outer eccentric blocks, then the vibration force will be 100 (the handling capacity only increases by around 15) .

Fifth, check if the liquid flow distribution in the sieve frame is reasonable. Both sides of the screen surface of the hook-edged structure screen shale shaker are lower than that in the middle, the drilling fluid is easy to leak to the sides, so you should make sure the drilling fluid flows in the middle of the sieve frame. To accomplish this, we can apply two methods. The first is adjust the front spring seat and lift the front angle of screen box; The second is adjust the position of the turnover plate of extending grooves to control liquid flow distribution.

BRANDT VNM SERIES SCREENS

INTRODUCING THE NEW STANDARD IN SCREENING PERFORMANCE

Brandt VNM screen

The VNM series shale shaker screens utilize an advanced frame design and unique mesh combinations to effectively and efficiently separate detrimental drilled solids from drilling fluid. VNM series screens are designed to fit all Cobra and LCM series shale shakers.

 

FEATURES

BENEFITS

Reinforced screen frame design

  • Provides improved energy transfer from the shaker basket to the screen, thus faster solids separation.
  • Improves screen life, thereby providing replacement cost savings and downtime minimization.
  • Eliminates the need for crown rubbers, which eliminates the cost of replacements.

Individual seals around the perimeter of the screen

Eliminates leakages

Patented pin-and-hole screen securing system

Guarantees that screens fit snugly to the shaker basket and will not slip or slide once secured

Compliant with API RP 13C

Ensures a consistent product that will meet specifications worldwide

The structure of linear motion shale shaker

At present, in the drilling fluid processing industry, people use the linear motion shale shaker basically. The following is the structure combination of linear motion shale shaker.

1 Screen box dip angle adjustment:

Screw rod lifting adjustment;

Hydraulic pressure adjustment. (manual operation or motor-driven)

2 Vibration motor type:

Macroaxis vibration motor from Martin;

Minor axis vibration motor from Martin;

Domestic motor.

3 Shaker screen tensioning manner:

Quick-changing tension manner;

Tension bolt.

4 Shaker screen type (customized):

Hookstrip Flat Screen;

Pyramid Screen.

5 Screen box combine type:

Single shale shaker;

Duplex shale shaker;

Multi shale shaker.

6 The number of plies of screen:

Monolayer screen;

Double-deck screen.

 

Capacity and efficiency of shale shaker

As the first-level solid control equipments in the drilling fluid process, the shale shakers first clean up the larger solid particles in the drilling fluid which returned from shaft bottom, it is fit for the screening of various kinds drilling fluid. Shale shaker is the necessary equipment in the well drilling equipments at present. 

The skill level of shale shaker mainly reflects on handling ability (thruput and separation size ),working stability, the length of  service life and operating flexibility.

The volume of fluid processed per unit of time by a shale shaker depends on the following factors:

1 Type of screen motion. The type of motion of shaker screen will influence the ultimate position of the vibrating assembly relative to the deck of the shaker and the motion track of cuttings. It can be: circular, circular-elliptical or linear.

2 Vibrating amplitude of the screen.

3 Vibrating frequency of the screen.

4 G-force: This is the force imparted by the vibrating system of the shaker to the screen surface to vibrate for solids separation. For conventional shakers G-force = 3 and for strong shakers G-force = 4~6.

5 Mesh and weaving type of screen cloth.

6 Drilling fluid properties such as density, PV, YP and gel strengths.

7 Load of solid on the screen (increases with the increase of pump output and mud solid content).

 

High quality solids control system for sale

Recently, we received an order of  a small solids control system, including shale shaker, desilter, desander, mud mixer, pumps and tanks.

This small solids control system is used for 1500m drilling rig, treating capacity is 90~120m3/h. The following pictures are the solids control equipments for our customer.

The system has a good performance of cold-resistent, high temperature resistance, anti-explosion, anti-leakage, anti-corrosion, raining proof, adapt to wicked condition of well drilling.

The surface is processed by sandblasting, the in-tank is painted with heavy anti-corrosion bituminous paint, and outside of the tank is painted by the oil-proof and acid and alkali corrosion resistant paint.

Behind the tank, there is a pressure bar type clear sand door, it is convenient and neat to open.

To use the hard links between the tanks, it is convenient to install and dismantle, has a good scalability.

DC Machinery is a famous manufacturer of solids control equipment in China. We can supply high quality solids control system according to the requirement of customers.

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