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Tag Archives: Shale Shakers

Impact of Gas-cutting Drilling Fluid to Shale Shakers

shale shaker

Shale shaker screening is dependent on a constant flow of drilling fluid with cuttings. The fluid must pass through the screen, and the cuttings must either pass through or be rejected by the screen. Gas cutting in the drilling mud can have up to three different effects that upset the screening process.

  1. Gas heading can cause volume surges in the mud flow that exceed the ability of the screen to handle fluid flow. This is usually from gas, intermixed in the mud, rapidly expanding at the surface and pushing large surges of drilling fluid out the flowline.Vacuum degassers and mud gas separators are the solutions to this problem.
  2. Gas cutting from tiny gas bubbles entrained in the drilling fluid can cause screen blinding when the bubbles expand to fill the area between the screen wires. This problem is usually handled by a degasser that removes the entrained gas from the drilling fluid.
  3. Foaming associated with gas cutting leaves a film of very light, wet foam on the shaker screen. The foam is too light to be gravity-pulled through the screen and carries extra liquid off the end of the shaker. Often the fluid loss is not significant and can be ignored. In other cases shaker sprays and defoamers are needed to break the foam. However, shaker sprays tend to wash extra cuttings through the screen.
  4. A fourth problem, not related to gas, is an extreme rise in the viscosity of the drilling fluid from saltwater or salt. This may cause the drilling fluid to flow over and not pass through the shaker screen. This problem often requires the bypassing of the contaminated mud to a reserve tank.

Operating Guidelines of Shale Shakers

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Shale shakers should run continuously while circulating. Cuttings cannot be removed if the shaker is not in motion

  1. Drilling fluid should cover most of the screen. If the drilling fluid covers only one fourth or one third of the screen, the screen is too coarse.
  2. A screen with a hole in it should be repaired or replaced at once. Holes in panel screens can be plugged. Install screens according to manufacturer’s recommended installation procedures. Cuttings are not removed from the drilling fluid flowing through the hole.
  3. Shaker screen replacements should be made as quickly as possible. This will decrease the amount of cuttings remaining in the drilling fluid because the shale shaker is not running.
  4. Locate and arrange tools and screens before starting to make the replacement. If possible, get help.
  5. If possible, change the screen during a connection. In critical situations, the driller may want to stop (or slow) the pumps and stop drilling while the screen is being replaced.
  6. For improved screen life with nonpretensioned screens, make certain the components of the screen tensioning system, including any rubber supports, nuts, bolts, springs, etc. are in place and in good shape.
  7. Check condition of vibration isolators members and screen support rubbers and replace if they show signs of deterioration or wear.
  8. Water should not be added in the possum belly (or back tank) or onto the shale shaker screen. Water should be added downstream.
  9. Except in cases of lost circulation, the shale shaker should not be bypassed, even for a short time.
  10. Wash screen(s) at the beginning of a trip so fluid will not dry on the screen(s).

The possum belly (or back tank), should not be dumped into the sand trap or mud tank system just before making a trip. If this is done, cuttings will move down the tank system and plug desilters as the next drill bit starts drilling.

Primary purpose of shale shaker

Shale shaker is a general term for a vibrating device used to screen solids from a circulating drilling fluid.

Many configurations have been used. These include:
1 A square or rectangular screening area with drilling-fluid flow down the length.
2 Revolving, nonvibrating, cylindrical screens with longitudinal flow down the center axis.
3 Circular screens with flow from the center to the outside.

Other configurations have been tried but have not become commercial. The majority of shale shakers flow the drilling fluid over a rectangular screening surface. Larger solids are removed at the discharge end, with the smaller solids and drilling fluid passing through the screens into the active system.

Shale shaker

The primary purpose of a shale shaker is to remove as many drilled solids as possible without removing excessive amounts of drilling fluid. These dual objectives require that cuttings (or drilled solids) convey off the screen while simultaneously most of the drilling fluid is separated and removed from the cuttings. Frequently, the only stated objective of a shale shaker is to remove the maximum quantity of drilled solids. Stopping a shale shaker is the simplest way to remove the largest quantity of drilled solids. Of course, this will also remove most of the drilling fluid. When disregarding the need to conserve as much drilling fluid as possible, the ultimate objective of reducing drilling costs is defeated.

 

The Use of Shale Shakers

Shale shakerDrilling fluid shale shaker can eliminate the solid particles size depend on the mesh size and shape. Field data shows that use the shaker screen with 12 mesh number most can eliminate only 10% of the solid phase. Therefore, we should use 80~120 mesh fine screen to eliminate more drilling cuttings. However, it will occur the following new problems: The mesh area of fine screen is less than the conventional screen, thus will reduce the treating capacity; The thin wire strength is low, the service life is shorter than the conventional screen; When high viscosity drilling fluid through the fine screen, the mesh will be blocked easily.

For increasing the service life and anti-clogging ability of shaker screen, we often use the laminated screen which has two or three layers screen, the lower coarse screen plays the support role. In addition, we can also use the double or multiple screen which has a certain space distance between layer and layer. Generally the upper is coarse screen, and the lower is fine screen. The upper coarse screen can eliminate bigger solid particles, can reduce the burden of the fine screen to remove fine solid phase more effectively.

When choosing shale shaker, except for according to the solid phase particle size distribution to choose suitable screen, still should consider another important factor: Screen permissive treating capacity. The treating capacity of shale shaker should be adapted to the maximum delivery capacity in drilling process.

 

Shale Shakers in Solids Control System

Shale ShakerThe first line of defense for a properly designed solids control system is the shaker. Shale Shakers remove solids from drilling fluid as the mud passes over the surface of a vibrating screen. Particles smaller than the openings in the screen pass through the holes of the screen along with the liquid phase of the mud.

Particles too large to pass through the screen are thereby separated from the mud for disposal. Without proper screening of the drilling fluid during this initial removal step, downstream equipment will experience reduced efficiency and effectiveness. The downstream hydrocyclones and/or centrifuges (if employed) will simply be overloaded beyond their design capacity.

There are a number of commercial claims that indicate that shakers can achieve solid cuts lower than 74 microns, however, when it comes to the practical installation and use of solids control systems (i.e. relative to flow rates, drilling fluid viscosity, screen condition, volume of solids being managed, etc.) operators should conservatively assume 100 microns as the performance limit.

Horizontal Directional Drilling Solids Control System

Relative to the use of drilling fluids within the oil and gas industry, the use of drilling fluids within the horizontal directional drilling (HDD) industry is new. Even today, the amount of research and development aimed at HDD drilling fluids is considered a rounding error in the oligopoly of drilling fluid manufacturers. However, the trends strongly suggest that the future of HDD drilling will follow a similar evolution as experienced by the traditional oil and gas industry.

Solids control system

Couple the evolution of drilling fluids with the escalating cost of waste management and disposal, the economic practicality of utilizing drilling fluids, is fully dependent on the ability to recover and recycle. Though the cost of barite and bentonite continue to be commoditized, additives continue to become more and more expensive. Add the escalating cost of qualified personnel, HDD rig operators are left with a critical challenge: making profits, when the cost of business is increasing.

A typical HDD solids control system will employ a combination of shaker, hydrocyclone, mixing, pump and compartmentalized tank technologies. The shaker is vital to the solids control system and is considered the first line of defense. Located directly downstream from the shaker will likely be a hydrocyclone assembly that will employ desilters, desanders or both. Though still considered rare, centrifuge-enable solids control systems are becoming more popular. By adding a centrifuge, the solids control system will achieve the highest level of cut available within the market today.

 

VSM Multi-Sizer separator Shaker

The reliable, operator friendly VSM Multi-Sizer separator provides high performance and flexibility for modern-day drilling practices. The VSM Multi-Sizer separator is the first to introduce CONSTANT-G CONTROL to provide optimum performance to meet drilling rates and separation efficiency.

VSM MULTI-SIZER SEPARATORCONSTANT-G CONTROL

CONSTANT-G CONTROL (CGC) is a patented technology developed to maintain an optimal G-force rating on the VSM Multi-Sizer separator during varying liquid/solids loading conditions. CGC Technology maximizes screen performance, solids conveyance and throughput while enhancing screen life. CGC is an industry first and a standard feature on the VSM Multi-Sizer.

With the addition of an accelerometer on the basket tied to the VFD operating the drive motors, the VFD is able to constantly monitor the Multi-Sizer separator’s G-force and adjust the motor speed in order to maintain the G-force at predetermined set points, depending on fluid and solids loading on the basket. The Multi-Sizer separator will run at a lower G-force and reduces wear on screens and components, while operating with little solids loading. When loading becomes more extreme and higher G’s are needed to process all of the drilling fluid, the Multi-Sizer separator will automatically ramp up to a higher G-force.

The VSM Multi-Sizer separator also offers a flexible flow (Flex-Flow) system that provides the ability to run in two unique operating modes: “in-series” and “in-parallel.” Changing modes is easily accomplished with an adjustable flow diverter.

 

MINI COBRA 3-PANEL SHAKER

MINI COBRA 3-PANEL SHAKERThe National Oilwell Varco Brandt Mini Cobra 3-Panel shaker utilizes three pretension screens and linear motion to remove detrimental drilled solids from the mud system. This allows the Mini Cobra 3-Panel shaker to minimize mud losses while enhancing cutting dryness. Maintenance on the unit is minimal and only a small inventory of replacement parts is necessary to sustain optimal operation. The small footprint and low weir height of this shaker makes it ideal for workover and small drilling rigs. Additionally, the shaker’s rugged design offers years of reliable operation.

Specifications

Shale Shaker Manufacturer in China

A drilling fluid shale shaker is a vibrator used for solid/liquid separation. It is an important device in solids control system because efficient operation of other surface solids separation equipment is critically dependent on proper functioning of the shaker.

Shale Shakers

The purpose of using a shaker is to recover drilling fluid and remove large solids as most as possible. A well designed shale shaker will not only maximize use of the screen cloth to separate solids from liquid, but will also convey these solids off the screen quickly, minimizing fluid loss with the solids and clearing the screen for more feed.

The shale shaker, in various forms, has played prominent role in oilfield solids control schemes for several decades. Shakers have evolved from small, relatively simple devices capable of running only the coarsest screens to the models of today. Modern, high-performance shakers of today are able to use 10 mesh and finer screens at the flow-line in most applications.

With rapid development of drilling new technology, the demand for drilling fluid solids control is getting higher and higher. The research for solids control equipments especially for the shale shaker is paid closer attention by world drilling engineers.

Shale ShakerShale Shaker.

DC Machinery is a professional manufacturer of solids control equipments. Shale shakers designed and manufactured by DC Machinery include three types: Linear Motion Shale Shaker, Balanced Elliptical Motion Shale Shake, and Circular Motion Shale Shaker.

 

Screen selection for shale shakers

A shale shaker can be used in all drilling applications in which liquid is used as the drilling fluid. Screen selection is controlled by circulation rate, shaker design, well-bore properties, and drilling-fluid properties.

Most operations involved in drilling a well can be planned in advance because of experience and engineering designs for well construction. Well planners expect to be able to look at a chart or graph and determine the size and number of shale shakers required to drill a particular well anywhere in the world. They expect to be able to determine the opening sizes of the shaker screens used for any portion of any well. But there are too many variables involved to allow these charts to exist. Many shale shaker manufacturers, because of customer demand, publish approximate flow charts indicating that their shakers can process a certain flow rate of drilling fluid through certain-size screens. These charts are usually based on general field experience with a lightly treated water-based drilling fluid and should be treated as approximations at best. These charts should be used to provide only very inaccurate guesses about screens that will handle flow rates for a particular situation.

Rheological factors, fluid type, solids type and quantity, temperature, drilling rates, solids/liquid interaction, well-bore diameters, well-bore erosion, and other variables dictate actual flow rates that can be processed by a particular screen. Drilling fluid without any drilled solids can pose screening problems. Polymers that are not completely sheared tend to blind screens and/or appear in the screen discard. Polymers that increase the low-shear-rate viscosity or gel strength of the drilling fluid also pose screening problems. Polymers, like starch, that are used for fluid-loss control are also difficult to screen through a fine mesh (such as an API 200 screen). Oil-based drilling fluids, or nonaqueous fluids (NAFs), without adequate shear and adequate mixing are difficult to screen. NAFs without sufficient oil-wetting additives are very difficult to screen through mesh finer than API 100.

Shaker ScreenShaker screen

Screen selection for shale shakers is dependent on geographical and geological location. Screen combinations that will handle specific flow rates in the Middle East or Far East will not necessarily handle the same flow rates in Norway or the Rocky Mountains. The best method to select shale shaker screens and/or number of shale shakers for a particular drilling site is to first use the recommendations of a qualified solids control advisor from the area. Screen use records should be established for further guidance.

 

 

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